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                        莊子的三條魚,人生的三重境界

                        時間:2019-06-10 作者:未詳 點擊:

                          莊子可能是最喜歡魚的哲學家了。授人以魚,不如授人以漁。他將生活的極大智慧,寫進了三條魚的故事里。讀明白了,人也就活通透了。
                          
                          北冥之魚
                          
                          莊子在《逍遙游》里寫的第一條魚,是北冥有一條名為鯤的魚,能化作鵬,遨游于九天。它會乘著六月的風,飛去南冥。可是莊子卻說它不自由,一旦沒有風,就只能從高空墜落。
                          
                          那時候有一個名叫列子的人,能夠駕著風在天上飛,跟神仙一樣。但是沒風,他也要發愁。
                          
                          站在風口,誰都能飛起來。這樣的自由,靠的是外物。是靠著財富、名聲,才能夠填補自我的空虛。
                          
                          陶淵明說過一句很有名的話,人不能為五斗米折腰。他情愿種豆南山下,戴月荷鋤歸。官場再好的錦衣玉食,也不如手中一杯菊花酒。吳宮深處埋荒草,晉代衣冠成古丘。榮華富貴轉眼就成了別人口中的笑談趣事,又有什么好在乎的呢?
                          
                          在莊子的智慧中,不為物所累,是人生的第一層境界。
                          
                          聽過這樣一個故事。有一個人在河邊釣魚,他每次釣上來就用尺量一下,只要比尺大的,都丟回河里。其他人問他這是為什么。他說:“我家的鍋只有尺這么長,太大的魚裝不下。”物質上的需求要尋求一個恰當的尺度,“夠用就好”是一種很好的生活態度。
                          
                          濠梁之魚
                          
                          莊子在《莊子·秋水》說的第二條魚,叫作儵,是濠河之魚。有一天,莊子和惠子路過濠水的橋上。莊子說:“你看這些儵魚在下面游得多么快樂。”惠子卻說:“你又不是魚,怎么知道魚快不快樂?”莊子立刻答道:“你又不是我,怎么知道我不知道魚的快樂呢?”
                          
                          生活就像一出戲,我們不在別人的曲目里,怎么能知道別人的悲歡。魚的快樂是自由嬉戲在水中,人的快樂是能夠自然生長在世間。一個迎合別人改變自己的人,注定不快樂,邯鄲學步的人生也沒有光。人最大的悲哀就是:你明明與眾不同,卻總希望和別人一樣。好的快樂從來都是自己的,不是別人眼里的。與其絞盡腦汁去想著活成別人喜歡的樣子,倒不如努力去活成自己喜歡的樣子。
                          
                          在莊子的智慧中,人生的第二種境界就是:不為別人的評價所累。人生最大的快樂,就是選擇一種喜歡的方式活著。
                          
                          江湖之魚
                          
                          莊子在《大宗師》里寫的第三條魚,叫作鮒,是車轍的小魚。一塊池塘干了,兩條小魚暴露在陸地上。兩條小魚互相吐沫,互相濕潤,勉強維生。莊子卻說,與其這樣互相熬著,不如放生彼此,去大江大河里過自己的新生。天命無常,人如風絮。不知道哪一天你的水就干涸了,和你相伴的人總有一天會離場。人與人都是相伴而行的旅者,只有自己才能走完全程。
                          
                          杜甫曾經和李白結伴而行,策馬江湖。杜甫羨慕李白的灑脫和瀟灑,崇拜他的天賦與才華。可惜我心向山,君心向水,他們終究揮手而別。
                          
                          杜甫成不了李白,可那又如何?寫不出“人生得意須盡歡,莫使金樽空對月”,那就寫“國破山河在,城春草木深”。
                          
                          在莊子的智慧中,人生的第三個境界是:找到自我。尋找自我的路上,或許會顯得孤獨。
                          
                          擁有自我的人,才會久處不厭。我們結伴而行走過江湖,但總還是要一個人去看天空和海洋。
                          
                          莊子說:“魚相忘于江湖,人相忘于道術。”
                          
                          所有的幸福都無法復制,活得通透舒服的人,都讀懂莊子的三重人生智慧:不滯于物,不困于心,不亂于人。身體可以戴著鐐銬跳舞,心靈則要插上自由的翅膀。

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